- 1898, Jun 17
- Maurits Cornelis Escher is born in Leeuwarden, the third son of G.A. Escher, an
engineer, and his second wife, a government minister's daughter, in the house which later
becomes the Princessehof Museum.
- Escher's family moves to Arnhem, Holland.
- 1912 - 1918
- Escher attends secondary school in Arnhem.
- Escher completes his first graphic work, a linoleum cut in purple of his father, G.A.
- Escher's family moves to Oosterbeek, Holland.
- 1918 - 1919
- Escher attends Technical College in Delft.
- 1919 - 1922
- Escher attends the School for Architecture and Decorative Arts in Haarlem; he takes
lessons from S. Jessurun de Mesquita, a vitally important figure in Escher's life and
- 1921, Mar - May
- Escher takes a holiday trip with parents along the French Riviera and through Italy.
- 1921, Nov
- The booklet 'Flor de Pascua', by A.P. van Stolk, illustrated with woodcuts by
Escher, is published.
- Escher produces 'Eight Heads', a woodcut and his first regular division of the
- 1922, Apr - Jun
- Escher takes trip through Northern Italy.
- 1922, Sep - Nov
- Escher travels by freighter to Tarragona; the trip continues through Spain and he makes
his first visit to the Alhambra, the Moorish palace in Grenada; he travels on to Italy,
where he lives from November 1922 until 1935.
- 1923, Mar - Jun
- Escher stays in Ravello, where he meets his future wife Jetta Umiker, the daughter of a
Swiss industrialist, then goes back to Sienna.
- 1923, Aug 13-26
- Escher's first one-man exhibition is held in Sienna, 'Circolo Artistico'.
- 1923, Nov
- Escher moves to Rome.
- 1924, Feb
- Escher's first exhibition is held in Holland.
- 1924, Jun 12
- Escher and Jetta are married.
- 1925, Oct
- Escher and Jetta return to Rome and live in their own home.
- 1926, May 2 - 16
- Escher has an exhibition in Rome, 'Gruppo Romano Incisori Artisti'.
- 1926, Jul 23
- Escher's first son George A. Escher is born.
- 1927 - 1935
- Escher takes yearly spring trips through inhospitable areas of Italy.
- 1928, Dec 8
- Escher's second son Arthur E. Escher is born.
- 1929, Summer
- During a visit to his parents, Escher makes his first lithograph, 'Goriano Sicoli,
Abruzzi', a mountain village in the Abruzzi.
- The book 'XXIV Emblemata', with epigrams by A.E. Drijfhout and woodcuts by
Escher, is published in the summer.
- The book 'De vreeselijke avonturen van Scholastica', by Jan Walch and woodcuts by
Escher, is published in the fall.
- Escher is awarded third prize for his lithograph 'Nonza, Corsica' at an
exhibition in Chicago.
- 1934, Dec 12 - 22
- Escher exhibits at the Dutch Historical Institute in Rome.
- 1935, May
- Escher travels through Sicily.
- 1935, July
- The Escher family moves to Switzerland.
- 1936, Apr - Jun
- Escher takes a sea trip along the coasts of Italy and France to Spain, he makes his
second visit to the Alhambra and also visits the mosque in Cordoba, Spain. This is a
pivotal point in Escher's work - he moves from landscapes to 'mental imagery', the graphic
works and tilings.
- The first 'Metamorphosis' is made. The Escher family moves to Brussels, Belgium.
- 1938, Mar 6
- Escher's third son Jan C. Escher is born.
- 1939, Jun 14
- Escher's father dies.
- 1939, Nov - 1940, Mar
- Escher works on 'Metamorphosis II'.
- 1940, May 10
- The German's invade the Low Countries.
- 1940, May 27
- Escher's mother dies.
- The German occupation forces the Escher's to move to The Netherlands.
- 1941, Feb 20
- The family moves to Baarn, Holland where Escher resides for the rest of his life. Five
intarsia panels by Escher are placed in Leiden Town Hall.
- 1944, Feb 1
- The Germans arrest Escher's teacher, S. Jessurun de Mesquita. He is never seen again.
- Escher organizes a memorial exhibition in honor of Mesquita and begins the study of the
- Articles on Escher are published in 'The Studio' (Feb), 'Time' (Apr 2),
and 'Life' (May 7) magazines.
- 1954 - 1961
- Each year Escher makes a sea voyage to and/or from Italy.
- 1954, Sep
- Escher has a large one-man exhibition at the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam on the
occasion of the International Mathematical Conference. He meets Canadian professor H.S.M.
- 1954, Oct - Nov
- Escher exhibits in the Whyte Gallery, Washington, D.C. Sells more than 100 prints.
- 1955, Feb
- The Escher's move to a new home in Baarn.
- 1955, Apr 30
- Escher is knighted, he receives the Knighthood of the Order of Oranje Nassau.
- Escher meets Bruno Ernst.
- Early in the year Escher's book 'Regelmatige vlak verdeling' (The Regular
Division of the Plane), written and illustrated by Escher is published.
- 1959, Nov
- 'Grafiek en tekeningen M.C. Escher' (The
Graphic Work of M.C. Escher) is published.
- Escher meets Caroline H. MacGillavry, professor of crystallography at Amsterdam
- He meets L.S. and Roger Penrose who become important
in later works.
- 1960, Aug
- Escher holds an exhibition and lectures in conjunction with the Congress of the
International Union of Crystallography in Cambridge, England.
- 1960, Aug - Oct
- Escher takes a sea voyage to Canada.
- 1960, Oct
- Escher lectures at MIT in Cambridge Massachusetts.
- 1961, Jun - Jul
- Escher crosses the Mediterranean by boat for the last time.
- 1961, Jul
- 'The Saturday Evening Post' (Jul 29) publishes an article on Escher by E.H.
- 1962, Apr
- Escher is admitted to hospital for an emergency operation; he takes a long time to
- 1964, Oct 1
- Escher and Jetta fly to Canada; he falls ill again and has to undergo another operation
- 1965, Mar
- Escher is awarded the cultural prize of the city of Hilversum.
- 1965, Aug
- 'Symmetry Aspects of M.C. Escher's Periodic Drawings' by Caroline H. MacGillavry,
a crystallographer, is published.
- 1965, Oct
- An article on Escher appears in the October issue of 'Jardin des Arts'.
- 1966, Apr
- Scientific American publishes a long article on Escher in its April issue.
- 1967 - 1968
- Escher designs 'Metamorphosis III' for post office in The Hague, unveiled Feb 20,
- Escher exhibits in Washington, D.C. (Mickelson Gallery) and The Hague (Gemeentemuseum),
at the end of the year Jetta leaves for Switzerland, Escher lives on his own with a
housekeeper. The Escher Foundation is set up.
- 1969, Jul
- Escher makes his last graphic work, a woodcut, 'Snakes'.
- In the spring Escher is readmitted to the hospital for another major operation.
- 1970, Aug
- Escher moves to the Rosa Spier house in Laren.
- A film about Escher is shown at the Osaka World Fair.
- 1971, Dec
- 'De werelden van M.C. Escher' (The World of
M.C. Escher, 1972) is published.
- 1972, Mar 27
- Escher dies, at the age of 73, in the hospital in Hilversum.
- 'De Toverspiegel van M.C. Escher' by Bruno Ernst is published.
- 'Goedel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid' by Douglas Hofstadter is
published and wins a Pulitzer Prize.
- The Escher Foundation is disbanded.
- 'Leven en Werk van M.C. Escher' (M.C. Escher.
His Life and Complete Graphic Work) by F.H. Bool, J.R. Krist, J.L. Locher and F. Wierda,
is published, containing the complete illustrated survey of Escher's graphic oeuvre.
- 'M.C. Escher, 29 Master Prints' is published.
- An interdisciplinary International Congress on M.C. Escher, entitled 'M.C. Escher:
Art and Science', is held in Rome.
- 'M.C. Escher: Art and Science', edited by H.M.S. Coxeter, R. Penrose and M.L.
Teuber is published.
- 'Escher on Escher: Exploring the Infinite' is
- 'Visions of Symmetry: Notebooks, Periodic Drawings, and
Related Works of M.C. Escher' by Doris Schattschneider is published.